For example, the emergence of the first futures contracts can be traced back to the second millennium BC in Mesopotamia. ABC Inc might have its margins affected too. The most practical example globally for future contracts is for commodity oil, which is scarce and has a huge demand. Therefore, the basic method of using Derivatives, which is leverage, should be wisely used as derivates still continue to remain an exciting yet hideous form of financial instrument for investment. Initial Cash Flow or Margine is Calculated as : So initially ABC Co. has to put $68,850 into its margin accounts in order to establish its position which will give company two contacts for next 3 month. ABC clearly makes a gain of $20000. So how many should be used the answer is 2. Future Contract Price will also rise by 5% so it will be $378,350 × 5% = $18,917.50, Future Loss = ($378,350 – $397,267.50) × 226 = -$4,275,355. THE CERTIFICATION NAMES ARE THE TRADEMARKS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE OWNERS. ABC Co. is a delivery company whose expenses are tied to fuel prices. The importer has the risk of paying the more if USD strengthens. Proceeds from the Sale of Future Contract is Calculated as : On 1st September the Exchange Rate moves to 72.35 and the Future Price Moves to 72.55. On the other hand, forward contracts do not ha… The Total Payment made in USD as on 1st March = No. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. If it really rains, the futures contracts for corn become expensive and are trading at $60 per contract. Question 3 -What is ABC Co. initial cash flow? However, there is a possibility of heavy rainfall which may destroy the crops planted by Bruce Corns and in turn increase the prices of corn in the market which will affect the profit margins of ABC. Financial derivatives, as mentioned above, are contracts that base their value on an underlying asset. It gives you the right to buy or sell a stock at a specified price within a window of time. Let us look at the following two scenarios. Furthermore, financial derivatives can be combined with a debt issuance to unbundle the financial price risk from other risks inherent in the process of raising capital. In them, the seller of the contract does not necessarily have to own the asset, but can give the necessary money to the buyer for it to acquire it or give the buyer another derivative contract. Profit on Sale of Future is calculated as : Profit on Sale of Future = Sale of Future Contract – Purchase of Future Contract. However, the financial instrument was not widely used until the 1970s. However, Bruce Corns have made all the possible provisions to save the crops and have this year used better farming equipment for the corns, therefore, expects higher than the normal growth of the corns, without any damage by the rains. Formally a Financial Derivative is a security whose payoff depends in a non-linear way on the primary assets, S 0 and S in our model (see Tangent). These are financial contracts that derive their value from an underlying real asset, such as a stock. Conclusion: The Importer has effectively hedged his loss by entering in the future contracts and thereby null and void his loss because of adverse movement in the exchange rate. Their complexity in accounting and handling make them difficult to price. Let us assume that corn flakes are manufactured by ABC  Inc for which the company needs to purchase corn at a price of $10 per quintal from the supplier of corns named  Bruce Corns. Swaps. Financial derivatives are used for two main purposes to speculate and to hedge investments. The above examples show us that derivatives provide an efficient method for end-users to better hedge and manage their exposures to fluctuation in the market price/rates. 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