Which was treasury empty when Louis XVI ascended the throne? HOTS This time too when Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General, he decided to continue the same old practice. Hereditary monarch Louis XVI and his wife were sentenced to death Robespierre was elected President of the National Convention. 4). Declaration of the rights of man and citizen was also a feature of this year. (ii) Charles Montesquieu (1689-1775): A nobleman by birth, he became a lawyer and a judge. People of Third Estate demanded a society based on freedom and opportunities to all. (ii) However, his period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror because Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. About 81% of their income went to the State, Nobles, Church, 19% of the income was their to live on grass and roofs and 1,000 peoples of them died due to starvation. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. @media only screen and (max-width: 768px) {.table-outer {overflow: scroll; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: grey solid 1px;}} Louis XVI came to the throne in 1774. It was a system under which land was granted to landlords in return for military or labour services. Question 26. Whom did Louis XVI get married to? (iv) No Political Rights: Out of the total population, the first and the second Estates had share of 2%. 8| Para – 1, Page No. 4) 3. On the other hand, the peasants and workers lived a wretched life. After his mother died shortly after his father, Louis' tutors did a poor job of training him to be … Wars and Economic Crisis : In 1774, when Louis XVI ascended the throne, he found and empty treasure. Powers of the king separated and assigned to the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. He was the last king of France They declared themselves a National Assembly. Emergence of middle class and their belief gave last blow to monarchy rule in France. The Constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. Galaxycrystals Galaxycrystals Answer: Louis XVI came to the power in France in 1774. Napoleon came into power in France due to military success in Italy, as well as his attack on the French Revolutionary government while it was under assault by a Parisian mob. As as whole, the Administration was corrupt. (vi) Churches were shut down and their buildings converted into barracks or offices. The Estates General was a political body to which the three estates i.e., the clergy, the nobility and the third estate sent their representatives. He is best known for contributing to the decline of royal authority that led to the French Revolution in 1789. From now on all men of 21 years and above, regardless of wealth, got the right to vote. Answer: Charles VIII came to the throne as a 13 year old, and, for the next nine years, was the puppet of his sister. Explain the circumstances under which Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly. On 21st September 1792 it abolished the monarchy and declared France as a republic. However, Napoleon reintroduced slavery. Schooling was made compulsory for girls. In his book, “The Spirit of Laws”, he criticised autocracy and praised the democratic republic. (iv) Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778): Rousseau is regarded as the architect of the French Revolution. On the eve of the French Revolution, the Bourbon ruler of France was Louis XVI, who inherited the throne in 1774, following the death of his grandfather and predecessor, Louis XV. Louis XVI, 1754–93, king of France (1774–92), third son of the dauphin (Louis) and Marie Josèphe of Saxony, grandson and successor of King Louis XV. Answer: The examples are : Question 6. (i) The National Assembly held long debates about whether the rights of man should be extended to all French subjects including those in the colonies but it did not pass any laws, fearing opposition from businessmen whose incomes depended on the slave trade. (iii) Passive citizens were the remaining men and all women. Explain any five features of the Constitution of 1791 framed by the National Assembly in France. How was the French society organized? Who wrote the ‘Two Treatises of Government’? When King Louis XVI took the throne of France in 1774, he inherited massive debt, partly because of French involvement and aid in the American Revolution, and couldn't fix the issues at hand. What was tithes? (i) The Constitution of 1791 gave the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. Estates General was called together by Louis XVI to pass proposals for new taxes. Fast Facts: Louis XV Who was the ruler of France on the eve of French revolution? The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror. What activity of the French monarchy hastened the revolution? Explain the impact of the French Revolution on the life of people of French. (ii) The middle class earned their wealth through an expanding overseas trade and from the manufacture of goods. Equality was also sought to be practised through forms of speech and address. Answer: Describe the division of French society before French revolution? When did the French Revolution occur? What was the role of philosophers and thinkers in the French Revolution? (ii) But the third estate demanded that voting now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote. Caught in a frenzy of fear, peasants started attacking nobles. 7. Answer: Or However, the troops were poorly trained, and the organiza- tion was top-heavy; there was one officer to fifteen men. What was taille? Louis XVI, also called (until 1774) Louis-Auguste, duc de Berry, (born August 23, 1754, Versailles, France—died January 21, 1793, Paris), the last king of France (1774–92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789. On 21st September, 1792 it abolished the monarchy and declared France as a republic. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote. France was under the rule of a monarch, Louis XVI. Only men above 25 years of age, who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage, were entitled to vote. (i) In the past, peasants and workers had participated in revolts against increasing taxes and food scarcity. Thus, they revolted against the cruel regime. Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. Answer: (ii) It was finally the Convention which in 1794 legislated to free all slaves in the French overseas possessions. This time too, Louis XVI was determined to continue the same practice. Turgot’s first duty was to rid France of their debt. This state of social inequality was the chief cause of the French Revolution. Explain the role of thinkers and philosophers in the French Revolution. (v) John Locke: He was also a great political thinker. compared with one to thirty-five in the more efficient Prussian army. The importance of the following years in concern with French Revolutions : (i) 1774: Louis XVI ascended the throne of France. This chapter describes France from Charles VIII to the rise of Catherine de’Medici. Compare the political, economic and social conditions of France before and after the revolution. All the written materials and cultural activities could be published or performed only after an approval from the king. On the morning of August 10 they stormed the Palace of the Tuileries, massacred the king’s guards and held the king himself as hostage for several hours. . (ii) Second Estate (Nobility): It comprised those persons who had high social and political rank. (iii) However, ten years later, Napoleon reintroduced slavery. Question 10. After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops. and its vulnerable northeastern frontier invited invasion. (iii) Francis Aronet Voltaire (1694-1778): Voltaire was another outstanding philosopher of the Revolution. They declared themselves a National Assembly, and swore not to disperse till they had drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers of the monarch. The reality of royal government, however, was somewhat different. Answer: Which ruler came to power in France in 1774? Answer: Question 15. He brought out a journal, and delivered powerful speeches to the crowds assembled at Versailles. Answer: Question 3. (i) Influence of the Philosophers and Writers: There were many French philosophers and thinkers like John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire and Mirabeau, who exposed the evils prevailing in the system. Who was the ruler of France during the revolution? The wages failed to keep pace with the rise in prices. Basic Rights: All the citizens were given some basic rights such as right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law. 2, Page No. Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. Now all were free to write and speak. The king could make appointments, formulate poli… Explain how the new political system of Constitutional monarchy in France worked. National unity and religious peace were secured at home, and France was raised to the first position among the powers of Europe. The National Assembly was formed in 1791 with an object to limit the powers of the monarch. From there, they travelled into the countryside. They demanded the right to vote to be elected to the Assembly and hold political office. Which Battle sealed the Fate of France in 1815? Answer: (v) Due to fear, peasants attacked castles of noblemen and looted hoarded grain and burnt down documents containing records of manorial dues. Question 4. What compelled Louis XVI to raise taxes in France? (v) Unequal Distribution of Wealth : In the French society, peasants made up about 90% of the population. It was governed by kings who considered themselves sovereign and all-powerful because their authority was drawn from God. Which book has proposed a division of power within government? Answer: Wars and Economic Crisis : In 1774, when Louis XVI ascended the throne, he found and empty treasure. Answer: On November 9th and 10th, 1799, he was put into power with two other consuls, Sieyes and Ducos. Why was the reign of Robespierre termed as ‘reign of terror’ despite various reforms introduced by him? 6| Para – 1 and 2, Page No. (i) In the past, voting in the Estates General had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. HOTS (iv) Storming the Bastille : On the morning of 14th July, 1789 the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille. Answer: Question 2. (a) Louis V (b Louis XVI (e Louis I (d) Louis II 1 See answer anjalijhunjhunwala is waiting for your help. He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became the First Consul of the Republic. His parents expected his older brother, Louis duc de Bourgogne, to inherit the throne. Answer: 7. Abbe’ Sieye’s originally a priest, wrote an influential pamphlet called, ‘What is the Third Estate?’. Napoleon came into power in France due to military success in Italy, as well as his attack on the French Revolutionary government while it was under assault by a Parisian mob. Conditions of women during the period of French Revolution are : Question 12. The Jacobin Clubs. (iv) The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden and all citizens were required to eat a loaf made of wholewheat. Answer: in 1789 he summoned the estates-general, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. (i) Mirabeau was born in a noble family but was convinced of the need to do away with a society of feudal privilege. (iv) Storming the Bastille: On the morning of 14th July, 1789, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille. Question 3. He came up with a solution to appease the peasants and fix France’s financial situation by minimizing spending of … Later the Assembly voted to imprison the royal family. Which social group emerged in the 18th Century in France? (iv) Freedom of the press also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed. They were employed as domestic servants in the house of prosperous people. But when that sibling at the age of 9 and Louis' father died a few years later, it was clear that the unprepared and unlikely Louis Auguste would be the next king. Under all these circumstances, Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly. All the taxes were paid by the people .of the Third Estates. Answer: Question 12. Features of the Constitution of 1791 : Question 14. Or In his Two Treatises.of government, John Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch. (Para – 2, Page No. (iii) 1791: The constitution of 1791 also established a short lived constitutional monarchy. Meat and bread were rationed. (Para – 1, Page No. It helped in bringing about technological improvements, economic growth and helped in removing the inequalities in the society. He condemned the Church which supported the privileged class, and ignored the poor. Although he was known as “Louis the Beloved,” his fiscal irresponsibility and political maneuvers set the stage for the French Revolution and, ultimately, the fall of the French monarchy. Which classes formed the privileged estates? Clovis I was the first of these to rise to true kingship. Lous XIII, XIV, and XV ruled from 1610 to 1774, just three kings in 164 years. The censorship on written materials and cultural activities was lifted. They supported a society based on freedom and equal laws. Philosophers influence the thinking of the people of France as : Question 7. That is, citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the Assembly. Beginning as a humble hunting lodge, the Palace of Versailles grew to encompass the permanent residence of the French monarchy and the seat of political power in France. Lous XIII, XIV, and XV ruled from 1610 to 1774, just three kings in 164 years. Question 6. Answer: Question 11. This was one way they could grasp and identify with ideas such as liberty or justice. Describe. Shortly before his death, Louis XV supported his chancellor Rene Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou in his efforts to limit the power of the parlement which blocked the fiscal reforms but his successor, Louis XVI (1774-1793) halted the process and restored the power of the parlement. But when that sibling at the age of 9 and Louis' father died a few years later, it was clear that the unprepared and unlikely Louis Auguste would be the next king. (i) Active citizens were those who had the right to vote. (iv) In ‘The Spirit of the Laws’, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. Answer: It was the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural rights. Between the period from King Charles the Bald in 843 to King Louis XVI in 1792, France had 45 kings. Question 13. Newspapers, pamphlets and printed pictures appeared steadily in the towns of French. They groaned under heavy taxes and forced labour. Although Louis wasn't king of the modern entity we call France, all the later French Louis' (culminating with Louis XVIII in 1824) were numbered sequentially, using him as the starting point, and it's important to remember that Hugh Capet didn't just invent France, there was a … Emboldened, he increased his status to the first Emperor of the French in 1804. The nation had gone into deep dept because of the fighting in the Seven Years War (1756-1763) and the Revolutionary War in America under Louis XVI. Louis ascended to the French throne in 1774 and from the start was unsuited to deal with the severe financial problems that he inherited from his predecessors. 5. This move prevented his controller general Anne Robert Jacques Turgot to carry out any notable reforms and the king dismissed him in 1776. The Constitution framed in 1791 began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens. In this war, France helped the 13 American colonies to gain their independence from Britain. One year later, Louis XVI appointed Jacques Necker who was expected to save the financi… “The inequality that existed in the French Society in the Old Regime became the cause of French Revolution”. (ii) National Assembly : The representatives of the Third Estate viewed themselves as spokesmen for the whole French nation. Answer: French merchants sailed from the ports of Bordeaux or Nantes to the African coast, where they bought slaves from local chieftains. What was the importance of the Declaration of the Rights of Man? They enjoyed certain privileges based on birth and also exempted from paying taxes. Throughout the eighteenth century there was little criticism of slavery in France. The reality of royal government, however, was somewhat different. Debate and Discussion: Freedom of the press also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed. He followed the policy of severe control and punishment. Napoleon Bonaparte came to prominence during the French Revolution and Revolutionary Wars as a formidable military and political leader. 6. “Ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution”. 8. King Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774) was the second-to-last king of France prior to the French Revolution. Question 27. Answer: Question 8. After his mother died shortly after his father, Louis' tutors did a poor job of training him to be a m… Louis XVI of the Bourbon family ascended the throne of France in 1774. (iii) Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government. Clovis I was the first of these to rise to true kingship. Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives. In which book did Rousseau mention the idea of one person, one vote? The Assembly nationalized church lands to pay off the public debt. Louis was a ‘family-man’. Only daughter wealthier members of the Third Estate could stay at convent. (iv) 1804: Napoleon became the emperor of France. The right to freedom of speech and expression. Question 8. King Louis XVI: Ruler of France at the time of the Russian Revolution. What was the Estates General? Explain. When Richelieu came into power, however, all this was changed. Answer: Bastille was hated because it stood for the despotic power of the king. It was a tax levied by the church, comprising one-tenth of the agricultural produce. Answer: Question 19. They were exempted from paying taxes and enjoyed certain privileges by birth. (b) The Spirit of the Laws. Measures are : Question 9. Answer: The extravagant lifestyle of the monarch brought France on the verge of bankruptcy and hastened the revolution. Explain the role of philosophers in the French Revolution. Discuss the impact of abolition of censorship in France. Under all these circumstances, Louis XVI finally according recognition to the National Assembly. The French monarch wielded considerable power but it was neither absolute nor unchecked. They were restored in 1814, and screwed it up yet again, so that the crown was given to a distan Name the three ‘Estates’ into which the French society was divided before the Revolution. What privileges did certain sections of the society enjoy? Who was the leader of the Jacobin Club? Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government. Montesquieu. (i) In the Old Regime all written material and cultural activities could be published or performed only after they had been approved by the censors of the king but after the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right. So the gap between the poor and the rich widened. The nation had gone into deep dept because of the fighting in the Seven Years War (1756-1763) and the Revolutionary War in America under Louis XVI. Question 24. Peasants also pay called tithes to church. Answer: Known as Louis Auguste early in life, the future king was never expected to be heir to the throne at all. Answer: Question 13. Answer: In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. French rulers neglected the navy in favor of the army, since France was, above all, a land power. The peasants had to pay various taxes to the government, to the nobles and to the Church. King Louis XVI was crowned king of France in the year of 1774. Who was the ruler of France on the eve of French revolution? The Bourbons continued to rule France until the Revolution, when Louis XVI, having initially accepted a constitutional settlement, appeared to renege on it and was deposed in 1791 in favour of a republic. (iv) Rest of the men and women were classed as passive citizens and not given right to vote. He is best known for contributing to the decline of royal authority that led to the French Revolution in 1789. It vested the power to make laws in the hands of National Assembly. 10. What was the name of direct tax collected by the state from the peasants in the 18th Century of France? However, he was denied a place in the king’s council and consequently, led an apolitical life till 1787. The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign cn terror. Louis XIV’s stage debut at age 15, Le Ballet de la Nuit, was a perfect example of the power games he would come to play. The ministers were also answerable to the legislature. What was the slogan of the French revolutionaries? She was wife to King Louis XVI, ... One of the greatest military commanders of all time, Napoleon came to power near the end of the French Revolution. Louis XV was king of France from 1715 to 1774. Under all these circumstances, Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly. On 21 September, 1792 it abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. Question 4. Question 5. They did not have access to education or job training. Which law was introduced by revolutionary government in France as help to improve the lives of women? (iv) If the court found them ‘guilty’ they were guillotined. Known as Louis Auguste early in life, the future king was never expected to be heir to the throne at all. 9). compared with one to thirty-five in the more efficient Prussian army. What were the main causes of the French Revolution of1789? The leader of a country is a ruler. Question 20. @media only screen and (max-width: 768px) {table {border-left:0px; border-right: 0px; border-bottom: 0px;}}, NCERT Solutions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, Important Questions for CBSE Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 The French Revolution. Freedom of Speech: Now the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right. On 20th June, they assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. The revolution acknowledged right to work and identified dignity of labour. The Revolution of 1789 . So all the taxes were paid by the people of the Third Estate. Louis XVI of Bourbon family came to power in France in 1774. The Oath was taken on 20th June in the hall of an indoor court in the grounds of Versailles. (i) Assembly of the Estates: On 5th May 1789, Louis XVI called together an assembly of the Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes. His reign (1774-1792) was cut short by the guillotine (pun intended) so he could not match the long reigns of his predecessors. It was governed by kings who considered themselves sovereign and all-powerful because their authority was drawn from God. Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. (v) France became a Republic: In 1792 the Jacobians held the king hostage and declared to form a new government. The slave trade began in the seventeenth century. Country Austria free which ruler came to power in france in 1774 yet he is best known for contributing to the first Consul of the Revolution... 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